Drowsy Driving References

The following references are related to drowsy and impaired driving and accident statistics. For more references go to NTSA's panel on driver fatigue and sleepiness website.

Akerstedt, T. and Kecklund, G. (2001) Age, gender and early morning highway accidents. Journal of Sleep Research 10:105-110.

Åkerstedt, T., Kecklund, G., and Hörte, L-G (2001) Night driving, season, and the risk of highway accidents. Sleep 24:401-406.

Akerstedt, T., Peters, B., Anund, A., and Kecklund, G. (2005) Impaired alertness and performance driving home from the night shift: a driving simulator study. Journal of Sleep Research 14:17-20.

Aldrich, M. S. (1989) Automobile accidents in patients with sleep disorders. Sleep 12:487-494.

Alonso, C. and Alonso, K. (1985) Driving under the influence. Journal of the Medical Association of Georgia 74:833-835.

Alpert, M. (1992) Sleep-disordered breathing and car accidents in the elderly. Journal of Sleep Research 1:167

Arbus, L., Tiberge, M., Serres, A., and Rouge, D. (1991) [Drowsiness and traffic accidents. Importance of diagnosis]. Neurophysiol Clin 21:39-43.

Arnedt, J. T., Owens, J., Crouch, M., Stahl, J., and Carskadon, M. A. (2005) Neurobehavioral performance of residents after heavy night call vs after alcohol ingestion. JAMA. 294:1025-1033.

Arnedt, J. T., Wilde, G. J. S., Munt, P. W., and MacLean, A. W. (2001) How do prolonged wakefulness and alcohol compare in the decrements they produce on a simulated driving task? Accident Analysis and Prevention 33:337-344.

Banks, S., Catcheside, P., Lack, L., Grunstein, R. R., and McEvoy, R. D. (2004) Low levels of alcohol impair driving simulator performance and reduce perception of crash risk in partially sleep deprived subjects. Sleep 27:1063-1067.

Banks, S., Catcheside, P., Lack, L. C., Grunstein, R. R., and McEvoy, R. D. (2005) The Maintenance of Wakefulness Test and driving simulator performance. Sleep 28:1381-1385.

Barger, L. K., Cade, B. E., Ayas, N. T., Cronin, J. W., Rosner, B., Speizer, F. E., and Czeisler, C. A. (2005) Extended work shifts and the risk of motor vehicle crashes among interns. New England Journal of Medicine 352:125-134.

Brown, I. D. (1982) Driving Fatigue. Endeavour 6:83-90.

Brown, I. D. (1994) Driver fatigue. Human Factors 36:298-314.

Cameron, C. (1973) Fatigue and driving - a theoretical analysis. Aust.Road Res. 5:36-44.

Carskadon, M. A. (2004) Sleep deprivation: health consequences and societal impact. Med Clin North Am 88:767-76.

Carter, T., Major, H., Wetherall, G., and Nicholson, A. (2004) Excessive daytime sleepiness and driving: regulations for road safety. Clin Med 4:454-456.

Catesby Ware, J., Risser, M. R., Manser, T., and Karlson Jr., K. H. (2006) Medical resident driving simulator performance following a night on call. Behavioral Sleep Medicine 4:1-12. Center for National Truck Statistics (1996) Truck and Bus Accident Factbook 1994. UMTRI-96-40:

Connor, J., Norton, R., Ameratunga, S., Robinson, E., Civil, I., Dunn, R., Bailey, J., and Jackson, R. (2002) Driver sleepiness and risk of serious injury to car occupants: population based case control study. BMJ 324:1125

Crawford, A. (1961) Fatigue and driving. Ergonomics 4:143-154.

Czeisler, C. A., Walsh, J. K., Roth, T., Hughes, R. J., Wright, K. P., Jr., Kingsbury, L., Arora, S., Schwartz, J. R. L., Niebler, G. E., and Dinges, D. F. (2005) Modafinil for excessive sleepiness associated with shift work sleep disorder. N Engl J Med 353:476-486.

Dement, W. C. (1997) The perils of drowsy driving. New England Journal of Medicine 337:783-784.

Drake, C. L., Roehrs, T., Richardson, G., Walsh, J. K., and Roth, T. (2004) Shift work sleep disorder: prevalence and consequences beyond that of symptomatic day workers. Sleep 27:1453-1462.

Fairclough, S. H. and Graham, R. (1999) Impairment of driving performance caused by sleep deprivation or alcohol: a comparative study. Human Factors 41:118-128.

Forney, R. B. (1973) International seminar research on alcohol, drugs and driving. Pharmacopsychiat. 6:104-113.

Gillberg, M., Kecklund, G., and Åkerstedt, T. (1996) Sleepiness and performance of professional drivers in a truck simulator - Comparisons between day and night driving. Journal of Sleep Research 12-15.

Gurubhagavatula, I., Maislin, G., Nkwuo, J. E., and Pack, A. I. (2004) Occupational screening for obstructive sleep apnea in commercial drivers. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 170:371-376.

Hack, M. A., Choi, S. J., Vijayapalan, P., Davies, R. J., and Stradling, J. R. (2001) Comparison of the effects of sleep deprivation, alcohol and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) on simulated steering performance. Respir.Med 95:594-601.

Hansteen, R. W., Miller, R. D., Lonero, L., Reid, L. D., and Jones, B. (1976) Effects of cannabis and alcohol on automobile driving and psychomotor tracking. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 282:240-256.

Haraldsson, P.-O., Carenfelt, C., Laurell, H., and Törnros, J. (1990) Driving vigilance simulator test. Acta Oto-laryngologica 110:136-140.

Horne, J. A. and Baulk, S. D. (2004) Awareness of sleepiness when driving. Psychophysiology 41:161-165.

Howard, M. E., Desai, A. V., Grunstein, R. R., Hukins, C., Armstrong, J. G., Joffe, D., Swann, P., Campbell, D. A., and Pierce, R. J. (2004) Sleepiness, sleep-disordered breathing, and accident risk factors in commercial vehicle drivers. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 170:1014-1021.

Huntley, M. S., Jr. and Centybear, T. M. (1974) Alcohol, sleep deprivation, and driving speed effects upon control use during driving. Human Factors 16:19-28. Institute of Medicine (2006) Sleep disorders and sleep deprivation: An unmet public health problem. ISBN:0-309-66012-2:1-500.

Jones, C. B., Dorrian, J., Jay, S. M., Lamond, N., Ferguson, S., and Dawson, D. (2006) Self-awareness of impairment and the decision to drive after an extended period of wakefulness. Chronobiology International 23:1253-1263.

Jones, C. B., Dorrian, J., and Rajaratnam, S. M. (2005) Fatigue and the criminal law. Industrial Health 43:63-70.

Kecklund, G. and Åkerstedt, T. (1993) Sleepiness in long distance truck driving: An ambulatory EEG study of night driving. Ergonomics 36:1007-1017.

Kielholz, P., Hobi, V., Ladewig, D., Miest, P., and Richter, R. (1973) An experimental investigation about the effect of cannabis on car driving behaviour. Pharmacopsychiat. 6:91-103.

Klauer, S. G., Dingus, T. A., Neale, V. L., Sudweeks, J. D., and Ramsey, D. J. (2006) The impact of driver inattention on near-crash/crash risk: an analysis using the 100-car naturalistic driving study data. HS810594:1-192.
Klonoff, J. (1974) Marijuana and driving in real-life situations. Science 186:317-324.

Knipling, R. R. and Wang, J. (1994) Crashes and fatalities related to driver drowsiness/fatigue: research note.

Kogi, K. and Ohta, T. (1975) Incidence of near accidental drowsing in locomotive driving during a period of rotation. Journal of Human Ergology (Tokyo) 4:65-76.

Kumagai, K., Hoashi, E., and Endo, S. (1975) The correlation between sleep rhythm and seizure activities. Jpn.Branch ILAE 43-94. Lenné, M. G., Triggs, T. J., and Redman, J. R. (1997) Time of day variations in driving performance. Accident Analysis and Prevention 29:431-437.

Lenne, M. G., Triggs, T. J., and Redman, J. R. (1998) Interactive effects of sleep deprivation, time of day, and driving experience on a driving task. Sleep 21:38-44.

Linnoila, M. (1973a) Drug effects on psychomotor skills related to driving: Interaction of atropine, glycopyrrhonium and alcohol. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 6:107-112.

Linnoila, M. (1973b) Effects of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, thioridazine, haloperidole, flupenthixole and alcohol on psychomotor skills related to driving. Annales Medicinae Experimentalis et Biologiae Fenniae 51:125-132.

Linnoila, M. and Mattila, M. J. (1973) Drug interaction on driving skills as evaluated by laboratory tests and by a driving simulator. Pharmacopsychiat. 6:127-132.

Linnoila, M., Saario, I., and Maki, M. (1974) Effect of treatment with diazepam or lithium and alcohol on psychomotor skills related to driving. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 7:337-342.

Lisper, H.-O., Laurell, H., and van Loon, J. (1986) Relation between time to falling asleep behind the wheel on a closed track and changes in subsidiary reaction time during prolonged driving on a motorway. Ergonomics 29:445-453.

Littner, M. R., Kushida, C., Wise, M., Davila, D. G., Morgenthaler, T., Lee-Chiong, T., Hirshkowitz, M., Daniel, L. L., Bailey, D., Berry, R. B., Kapen, S., and Kramer, M. (2005) Practice parameters for clinical use of the multiple sleep latency test and the maintenance of wakefulness test. Sleep 28:113-121.

Lyznicki, J. M., Doege, T. C., Davis, R. M., and Williams, M. A. (1998) Sleepiness, driving, and motor vehicle crashes. Journal of the American Medical Association 279:1908-1913.

Mackie, R. and O'Hanlon, J. F. (A study of the combined effects of extended driving and heat stress on driver arousal and performance. In Vigilance Theory, Operational Performance and Physiological Correlates, Mackie, R. R. eds, pp 537-558, Plenum Press,New York.

Mallis, M. M., Maislin, G., Konowal, N., Byrne, V. E., Bierman, D. M., Davis, R. K., Grace, R, and Dinges, D. F. (2000) Biobehavioral responses to drowsy driving alarms and alerting stimuli. Final Report:

Marcus, C. L. and Loughlin, G. M. (1996) Effect of sleep deprivation on driving safety in housestaff. Sleep 19:763-766.

Maycock, G. (1996) Sleepiness and driving: the experience of UK car drivers. Journal of Sleep Research 5:229-237.

Maycock, G. (1997) Sleepiness and driving: The experience of U.K. car drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention 29:453-462.

McCartt, A. T., Ribner, S. A., Pack, A. I., and Hammer, M. C. (1996) The scope and nature of the drowsy driving problem in New York State. Accident Analysis and Prevention 28:511-517.

McDonald, N. (Fatigue, safety and the industrialisation of heavy goods vehicle driving. In Human Factors in Transport Research, Oborne, D. J. and Levis, J. A. eds, pp 135-141, Academic Press,New York.

McKenna, F. P. (1982) The human factor in driving accidents. an overview of approaches and problems. Ergonomics 10:867-877.

Milner, G. (1977) Marihuana and driving hazards. Medical Journal of Australia 1:208-211.

Moskowitz, H., Hulbert, S., and McGlothlin, W. H. (1976a) Marijuana: effects on simulated driving performance. Accident Analysis and Prevention 8:45-50.

Moskowitz, H., Ziedman, K., and Sharma, S. (1976b) Visual search behavior while viewing driving scenes under the influence of alcohol and marihuana. Human Factors 18:417-431.

Muto, W. H. (1982) The effect of repeated emergency response trials on performance during extended-duration simulated driving. Human Factors 24:693-698.

National Center on Sleep Disorders Research, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, and National Institutes of Health (1998) Educating youth about sleep and drowsy driving: Strategy development workshop report.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHT) (1999) The NHTSA & NCSDR program to combat drowsy driving: Report to the House and Senate Appropriations Committees describing collaboration between National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and National Center on Sleep Disorders Research, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health. National Sleep Foundation (2005) Executive summary of the 2005 "Sleep in America" poll.

National Transportation Safety Board (1990a) Safety Study: Fatigue, Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Medical Factors in Fatal-to-the-Driver Heavy Truck Crashes (Volume 1). NTSB/SS-90/01:1-181.

National Transportation Safety Board (1990b) Safety Study: Fatigue, Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Medical Factors in Fatal-to-the-Driver Heavy Truck Crashes (Volume 2). NTSB/SS-90/01:1

Nilsson, T., Nelson, T. M., and Carlson, D. (1997) Development of fatigue symptoms during simulated driving. Accident Analysis and Prevention 29:479-488.

O'Hanlon, J. F. and Volkerts, E. R. (1986) Hypnotics and actual driving performance. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 74:95-104. Ohayon, M. M., Lemoine, P., Arnaud-Briant, V., and Dreyfus, M. (2002) Prevalence and consequences of sleep disorders in a shift worker population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 53:577-583.

Pack, A. I., Pack, A. M., Rodgman, E., Cucchiara, A., Dinges, D. F., and Schwab, C. W. (1995) Characteristics of crashes attributed to the driver having fallen asleep. Accident Analysis and Prevention 27:769-775.

Parsons, Malcolm (1986) Fits and other causes of loss of consciousness while driving. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 58:295-303.

Philip, P. and Akerstedt, T. (2006) Transport and industrial safety, how are they affected by sleepiness and sleep restriction? Sleep Med Rev 10:347-356.

Philip, P., Taillard, J., Moore, N., Delord, S., Valtat, C., Sagaspe, P., and Bioulac, B. (2006) The effects of coffee and napping on nighttime highway driving: a randomized trial. Ann.Intern.Med 144:785-791.

Philip, P., Taillard, J., Quera-Salva, M. A., Bioulac, B., and Akerstedt, T. (1999) Simple reaction time, duration of driving and sleep deprivation in young versus old automobile drivers. Journal of Sleep Research 8:9-14.

Powell, N. B., Schechtman, K. B., Riley, R. W., Li, K., Troell, R., and Guilleminault, C. (2001) The road to danger: the comparative risks of driving while sleepy. Laryngoscope. 111:887-893.

Rafaelsen, O. J., Bech, P., and Rafaelsen, L. (1973) Simulated car driving influenced by cannabis and alcohol. Pharmacopsychiat. 6:71-83.

Rafailsen, O. J., Bech, P., Christiansen, J., Christrup, H., Nyboe, J., and Rafailsen, L. (1973) Cannabis and alcohol:effcts on simulated car driving. Science 179:920-923.

Redelmeier, D. A. and Tibshirani, R. J. (1997) Association between cellular-telephone calls and motor vehicle collisions. N Engl J Med 336:453-458. Reyner, L. A. and Horne, J. A. (1998) Falling asleep whilst driving: are drivers aware of prior sleepiness? Int.J Legal Med 111:120-123.

Richardson, G. S., Miner, J. D., and Czeisler, C. A. (Impaired driving performance in shiftworkers: the role of the circadian system in a multifactorial model. In Alcohol, drugs and driving., Moskowitz, H. eds, pp 265-273, Alcohol Information Services,Los Angeles.

Riemersma, J. B. J., Sanders, A. F., Wildervanck, C., and Gaillard, A. W. (Performance decrement during prolonged night driving. In Vigilance Theory, Operational Performance, and Physiological Correlates, Mackie, R. R. eds, pp 41-58, Plenum Press,New York.

Roehrs, T., Beare, D., Zorick, F., and Roth, T. (1994) Sleepiness and ethanol effects on simulated driving. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research 18:154-158.

Rogé, J., Pébayle, T., El Hannachi, S., and Muzet, A. (2003) Effect of sleep deprivation and driving duration on the useful visual field in younger and older subjects during simulator driving. Vision Research 43:1465-1472.

Saario, I. and Linnoila, M. (1976) Effect of subacute treatment with hypnotics, alone or in combination with alcohol, on psychomotor skills related to driving. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 38:382-392.

Sakai, K. and Takahashi, Y. (1975) Driving and subsidiary behavior of taxi drivers working alternate-day shifts. Journal of Human Ergology (Tokyo) 4:115-127.

Sassani, A., Findley, L. J., Kryger, M., Goldlust, E., George, C., and Davidson, T. M. (2004) Reducing motor-vehicle collisions, costs, and fatalities by treating obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep 27:453-458.

Seppälä, T., Leino, T., Linnoila, M., Huttunen, M., and Ylikahri, R. (1976) Effects of hangover on psychomotor skills related to driving: Modification by fructose and glucose. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 38:209-218.

Stoohs, R. A., Bingham, L. A., Itoi, A., Guilleminault, C., and Dement, W. C. (1995) Sleep and sleep-disordered breathing in commercial long-haul truck drivers. Chest 107:1275-1282.

Strohl, K. P., Blatt, J., Council, F., Georges, K., Kiley, J., Kurrus, R., McCartt, A. T., Merritt, S. L., Pack, A. I., Rogus, S., Roth, T., Stutts, J., Waller, P., and Willis, D. (1998) Drowsy driving and automobile crashes: Reports and recommendations. DOT HS 808 707:III-30.

Stutts, J. C., Wilkins, J. W, and Vaughn, G. M. (1999) Why do people have drowsy driving crashes? Nov 1999:1-85.

Stutts, J. C., Wilkins, J. W., Scott, Osberg J., and Vaughn, B. V. (2003) Driver risk factors for sleep-related crashes. Accid Anal Prev 35:321-331.

Teran-Santos, J., Jimenez-Gomez, A., and Cordero-Guevara, J. (1999) The association between sleep apnea and the risk of traffic accidents. Cooperative Group Burgos-Santander. New England Journal of Medicine 340:847-851.

West, R., Wilding, J., French, D., Kemp, R., and Irving, A. (1993) Effect of low and moderate doses of alcohol on driving hazard perception latency and driving speed. Addiction 88:527-532.

Young, T., Blustein, J., Finn, L., and Palta, M. (1997) Sleepiness, driving and accidents. Sleep 20:608-613.